Introduction of inulin
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Introduction of inulin

Views:1     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-02-08      Origin:Site

Inulin is a reserve polysaccharide in plants. It is mainly derived from plants. More than 36,000 have been found, including 11 families such as Asteraceae, Campanulaceae and Gentianaceae in dicotyledonous plants and Liliaceae and Gramineae in monocotyledonous plants,wood branch.


For example, the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory, the tubers of peony (Dali chrysanthemum), and the roots of thistle are rich in inulin, among which Jerusalem artichoke has the highest inulin content.


The inulin molecule is formed by the polymerization of 31 β-D-frutofuranose and 1 to 2 pyraninulin residues, and the fructose residues can be connected by β-2,1-bonds. It is a linear straight-chain polysaccharide formed by D-fructose linked by β(1→2) glycosidic bonds, often with a glucose residue at the end, with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 2~60, of which the average degree of polymerization DP≤9.


 Inulin is also called short-chain inulin. Inulin extracted from natural plants contains both long and short chains. The molecular formula of inulin is expressed as GFn, where G represents the terminal glucose unit, F represents the fructose molecule, and n represents the number of fructose units.


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Work effect


1. Control blood lipids


Intake of inulin can effectively reduce serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), increase the ratio of high-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein, and improve blood lipid status. Hidaka et al. reported that elderly patients aged 50-90 who consumed 8g of short-chain dietary fiber daily reduced the levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol in the blood after two weeks. Yamashita et al. fed 18 diabetic patients with 8g of inulin for two weeks, the total cholesterol was reduced by 7.9%, but HDL-cholesterol remained unchanged.


The above-mentioned parameters did not change in the control group fed with food. Brighenti et al. observed that when 12 healthy young men added 9g of inulin to their daily breakfast cereals for 4 weeks, total cholesterol was reduced by 8.2%, and triglycerides were significantly reduced by 26.5%.


Many dietary fibers absorb fat in the intestines to form a fat-fiber complex that lingers out with feces, thereby reducing blood lipid levels. Moreover, inulin is fermented into short-chain fatty acids and lactate before the end of the intestine, and lactate is a regulator of liver metabolism. Short-chain fatty acids (acetate and propionate) can be used as fuel in the blood, and propionate inhibits the synthesis of cholesterol.


2. Lower blood sugar


Inulin is a carbohydrate that does not cause an increase in glucose in urine. It will not be hydrolyzed into monosaccharides in the upper part of the intestine, so it will not increase blood sugar levels and insulin content. Studies now show that the reduction of fasting blood glucose is the result of short-chain fatty acids produced by the fermentation of oligofructose in the colon.


3. Promote the absorption of minerals


Inulin can greatly increase the absorption of Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+" and other minerals. According to reports, teenagers consume 8 g/d (long and short-chain inulin fructans) for 8 weeks and 1 year, respectively. It was found that both significantly increased the absorption of Ca, and the body's bone mineral content and density also increased significantly.


The main mechanisms of inulin to promote the absorption of mineral elements are:


1) The short-chain fat produced by inulin fermented in the colon makes the crypts on the mucosa shallow, and the crypt cells increase to increase the absorption area, and the cecal veins are more developed.


2) The acid produced by fermentation lowers the pH of the colon, which improves the solubility and bioavailability of many minerals. In particular, short-chain fatty acids can stimulate the growth of colonic mucosa cells and improve the absorption capacity of the intestinal mucosa;


3) Inulin can promote the secretion of phytase by some microorganisms, and phytase can release the metal ions chelated with phytic acid and promote its absorption.


4) Certain organic acids produced by fermentation can chelate with metal ions to promote the absorption of metal ions.


4. Regulate intestinal microflora, improve intestinal health and prevent constipation


Inulin is a natural water-soluble dietary fiber, which can hardly be hydrolyzed and digested by gastric acid. It is only used by beneficial microorganisms in the colon to improve the intestinal environment. Studies have shown that the degree of proliferation of bifidobacteria depends on the number of initial bifidobacteria in the human large intestine. When the initial number of bifidobacteria decreases, the proliferation effect is obvious after using inulin. When the initial number of bifidobacteria is large, use chrysanthemum The effect after powder is not obvious. Secondly, the intake of inulin can enhance gastrointestinal motility, improve gastrointestinal function, increase digestion and appetite, and improve body immunity.

 

5. Inhibit the production of toxic fermentation products, protect the liver and prevent colon cancer


Food reaches the colon after digestion and absorption. Under the action of intestinal saprophytes (E. coli, Bacteroides, etc.), it can produce many toxic metabolites (such as ammonia, nitrosamines, phenol and cresol, secondary bile acids, etc.), and the short-chain fatty acids produced by inulin in the colon can lower the pH of the colon, inhibit the growth of saprophytes, reduce the production of toxic products, and reduce the stimulation of the intestinal wall.


A series of metabolic activities of inulin can inhibit the production of toxic substances, increase the frequency and weight of bowel movements, increase the acidity of the stool, accelerate the excretion of carcinogens, and produce short-chain fatty acids with anti-cancer effects, which is beneficial to the prevention of colon cancer.


6. Prevent constipation and treat obesity. 


Dietary fiber reduces the residence time of food in the gastrointestinal tract and increases the amount of feces to effectively treat constipation. Its weight loss effect is to increase the viscosity of the contents and reduce the speed of food from the stomach to the small intestine, thereby reducing hunger and reducing food intake.


7. There is a small amount of 2-9 oligofructose in inulin. 


Studies have shown that oligofructose can increase the expression of trophic factors in brain nerve cells, and has a good protective effect on corticosterone-induced neuronal damage. The antidepressant effect.


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